By Yehoshua Y. Kalisky
The potential of controlling and constantly altering laser emission wavelengths in a large spectral diversity with out utilizing exterior parts in keeping with nonlinear optics (to shift the basic wavelength) is of basic value to scientists. With the appearance of novel high-power pumping resources, it truly is attainable to layout and function a brand new classification of tunable reliable country laser units for varied purposes. This e-book demonstrates the layout of latest laser fabrics in accordance with quantum mechanical rules, spectroscopic homes of transition-metal ions, and ion-host interplay. This strategy contains the idea of digital constitution of transition-metal ions, modeling of strength move and nonradiative procedures, and symmetry issues in spectroscopic research of d orbitals.
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The potential for controlling and constantly altering laser emission wavelengths in a large spectral diversity with out utilizing exterior components in response to nonlinear optics (to shift the basic wavelength) is of fundamental significance to scientists. With the arrival of novel high-power pumping resources, it's attainable to layout and function a brand new classification of tunable stable nation laser units for numerous functions.
Extra info for Solid State Lasers: Tunable Sources and Passive Q-Switching Elements
The chemical and physical differences between the 4f n5d16s2 (idealized) configuration and the 4f nþ16s2 (observed) configuration are small because the energy differences between these configurations are also very small. The 4f electrons are well shielded by the outer 5d or 6s shells, and therefore these electrons are unaffected by the external crystal fields and are unavailable for chemical reaction. 1 Element La Ce Nd Eu Gd Tb Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Ground-state electronic configuration of some f element atoms.
These characteristics are a result of the spectral properties (wavelength, bandwidth, lifetime of the emitting level) of the active ion. The following section defines the relevant spectroscopic nomenclature. The most-commonly used active ions belong to the f element block (rare earth ions). The 4f energy level of the rare earth elements after lanthanum (La) falls below that of the 5d level; therefore, subsequent electrons are added to the inner, shielded 4f orbitals. One should note that although the 4f orbitals are expected to be occupied regularly—namely, the electronic structure will be in the following arrangement: 4f n5d16s2 (n ¼ 1–14), starting from Ce to Lu—the observed structure is associated with the electronic stability obtained by a complete configuration of 4f 7 (Eu) or 4f 14 (Yb) occupancy of any set of orbitals.
1 individual electron i. The vector addition of the spin and the orbital angular momentum is J ¼ L þ S. The value of J is the characteristic of the LSJ state and is the subscript of the L in the LSJ symbol. Similarly, the z component of J is given by Jz ¼ Lz þ Sz. The total angular momentum defined earlier has discrete values characterized by the quantum number J: J ¼ ðL þ SÞ, ðL þ S À 1Þ, ðL þ S À 2Þ, . . , jL À Sj: ð2:1Þ Both the electron orbital and the spin angular momenta interact via LS coupling or Russell–Saunders coupling to form an angular momentum J.
Solid State Lasers: Tunable Sources and Passive Q-Switching Elements by Yehoshua Y. Kalisky