By Guillaume Devin (eds.)
Do foreign associations quite give a contribution to development an enduring peace? As diplomats, practitioners with those associations, and specialists on their techniques, the authors underline the strengths and weaknesses that foreign actors have created and will not abandon.
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It is a fair question, for the UN Charter is based entirely on the dogma of national sovereignty and does not authorize intervention “in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state” (Article 2, paragraph 7). Most contemporary crises are not of the transborder type; the danger comes from within. A regime will oppress a population and claim it is acting in the best interests of all concerned. This is insecurity, to be sure, but not of the kind the Charter deals with, for it acknowledges only states and the quarrels between them.
The Security Council and New Forms of Crisis It has become obvious that many emerging crises are not distinguished by highly visible signs such as military mobilizations, armed incidents, and border incursions. Issues are no longer territorial; there is no clearly defined dispute. The problems are manifold: a region begins to disintegrate, power crumbles; internal repression is just as likely as an attack from outside. Crises are sometimes free What Remains of Collective Security? 25 of physical or governmental links—which removes the opportunity to pinpoint individuals and attribute responsibility— and can decompose into terrorist acts of uncertain origin and devastating effect.
In this domain, and in an age of genetic engineering, the export of a pathogen or genetic sequence is little different from the export of technological expertise, or perhaps an irreplaceable cell culture for scientific experiments. In the biological domain, the refusal to grant an export license is double-edged. To deny an Iranian or Chinese laboratory the opportunity to develop vaccines or conduct virological research is a delicate matter, for it would equate to a kind of quarantine and could even hinder a country’s ability to establish a properly functioning public health sector: the SARS epidemic that originated in Asia and appeared to present a global threat in the summer of 2003 comes to mind here.
Making Peace: The Contribution of International Institutions by Guillaume Devin (eds.)