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Extra resources for Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Accident [Safety Gde GS-G-2.1] - IAEA Pub 1265

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The arrangements for taking protective action should therefore include a plain language explanation of how the protective actions would ensure the safety of the public. 31. Inconsistencies between measures taken by different States may be difficult to explain and may possibly result in a loss of trust in officials on the part of the public. Consequently, the arrangements should include a means to ensure that the recommended countermeasures or actions are coherent among States or that any differences can readily be explained to the public to allow the public and decision makers to make informed decisions.

2. The concept of operations should be a brief description of the ideal response to an emergency. It should be developed at the beginning of the preparedness process to ensure that all those involved in the development of a response capability share a common vision. This section provides a summary of the threats posed by a nuclear or radiological emergency and an example of a concept of operations for dealing with any such emergency. 3. There are two operational concepts that apply in responding to any emergency.

31 — Procedures and training: As discussed earlier, during the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl emergencies the on-site and off-site response staff did not initially recognize or comprehend the severity of the event or initiate the appropriate response. It was said that the staff at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant when the accident happened in April 1986 were very brave but they did not know what to do early in the emergency [38]. Such failures have been attributed to training that did not address severe accidents and to procedures that lacked predetermined criteria on the basis of which to classify events and to make decisions in response.

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