By UNESCO

ISBN-10: 9231010824

ISBN-13: 9789231010828

Publication via UNESCO

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For the equation to hold accurately, t should be found from t-tables corresponding to the required confidence level and to y1 - 1 degrees of freedom. Since neither S2 nor t2 can be known exactly at the time when this calculation is needed,4 is an adequate value to obtain useful answers; t2 can be changed if a different level of confidence is required (Westlake, personal communication). In many situations it is also possible to obtain an estimate of losses due to grazing,etc. In tropical and subtropical communities where there are relatively minor seasonal changes in biomass,such methods cannot be employed and rate of turnover must be measured instead (Westlake,1969).

When these propagules are readily dispersed by water currentsand other agents, such as birds and man, they are a potent means for promoting the dispersal of the species,especially when they are produced in large numbers. Though there is a tendency among aquatic plants for the development of vegetative propagation, sometimes apparently accompanied by the dimunition in the importance of sexual reproduction,the importance of seed and spore formation must not be underestimated,especially as these are frequently adapted to withstand long periods of adverse conditions.

Emergent plants also provide the rather special conditionsneeded by swamp inhabitants,such as the swamp worm, Alma enzini. In such swamps,Alma digests large amounts of detritus. Emergent macrophytes often provide extensive areas of plant cover above water. In papyrus swamps,each papyrus stem is terminated by a large umbel with many long rays. Thornton (1957) found each umbel supported a fauna which was strongly correlated with umbel development. Another emergent,Phragmites australis, serves as a host for the parasitic smut fungus,Ustilago grandis, in addition to other plant and animal pests (Durska, 1970).

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Aquatic Vegetation and Its Use and Control by UNESCO


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