By Otto-Michael Lesch, Henriette Walter, Christian Wetschka, Michie Hesselbrock, Victor Hesselbrock
Alcohol and nicotine dependancy commonly ensue jointly. over the past ten years healing points and motivational innovations were significantly more desirable. for that reason, teams and subgroups were outlined and will be taken care of with particular medicine and tailored psychotherapies, prime within the long-term to significantly greater and more desirable effects than the as soon as commonly utilized, rigorous abstinence -based treatments. even if, alcohol and nicotine habit nonetheless symbolize significant clinical and social difficulties. during this ebook, new healing methods are comprehensively defined, outlining the various interactions among character, setting and the results of the substance. as well as prevention-based remedies and prognosis, crucial mental and sociological thoughts, in addition to medication-based remedies, also are awarded intimately. All of those cures have sensible goals and are of world validity. furthermore, the publication presents a wide evaluate of the yank and ecu epidemiology of alcohol and nicotine addictions. The ebook is written for all those that take care of and provide specialist treatment for alcohol and nicotine-addicted sufferers.
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Extra info for Alcohol and Tobacco: Medical and Sociological Aspects of Use, Abuse and Addiction
Adolescents need to have time and room to live out their youth appropriately. Rules that are too rigid and are not accepted as rules by adolescents, promote the consumption behaviour. The world of grown-ups doesn’t observe rules or rituals anymore, but nevertheless tries to prescribe these rituals to adolescents. This double standard promotes substance abuse. Changes in family structures (e. g. ) lead to developmental dysfunctions, which in turn promote abuse (Jessor SL and Jessor R 1978; Lazarus RS and Launier R 1978).
When intoxicated, an adult regresses, and inhibitions and defensive behaviour are removed and therefore repressed sources of pleasure are accessible again. The addictive drug enables the individual to step back from the principle of reality to the child’s principle of pleasure and therefore to escape reality (Freud S. 1905; Innerhofer P. ; Vogler E. and Revenstorf D. 1978). For Freud, masturbation is the prototype of addiction and Rado even speaks of a “pharmaceutical orgasm” (Rado S. 1926, 1975).
Consumption is understood as a learned behaviour which is affected by the respective life situation and individual variables. In 1943, Hull CL already formulated his tension reduction theory, based on Pavlov’s classic conditioning model, which indicated that individuals learn speciﬁc reactions to stimuli that lead to a reduction of states of tension in the body (Hull CL. et al. 1943). According to this theory, alcohol and tobacco addiction are behaviours that are learned through reinforcement and which lead to a reduction of tension (often anxiety).
Alcohol and Tobacco: Medical and Sociological Aspects of Use, Abuse and Addiction by Otto-Michael Lesch, Henriette Walter, Christian Wetschka, Michie Hesselbrock, Victor Hesselbrock