By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise advisor on picking out and measuring skinny movie thickness via optical methods.
This useful publication covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with topic, in addition to the speculation and perform of thickness dimension, and smooth functions. In so doing, it indicates the features and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of size units besides their review methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and subject. the most subject of this e-book, the choice of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by means of measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is handled within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. eventually, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses a number of business functions of the layer thickness size, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands occupied with all parts of optical layer and skinny optical movie size and metrology, method keep watch over, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical size (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness selection (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny movies (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 purposes (pages 149–185):
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
Experimental values of e1(v) and e2(v) are, however, available only for restricted regions. Therefore, the above integrals must be divided into parts, for example, the real part 2 e1 ðvÞ ¼ 1 þ p V ð1 0 Ve2 ðVÞ 2 dV þ ˆ 2 2 p V Àv V ð2 V1 Ve2 ðVÞ 2 dV þ 2 2 p V Àv 1 ð V2 Ve2 ðVÞ dV: V2 Àv2 ð2:118Þ While the mid integral can be calculated exactly, the two other integrals must be estimated using reasonable assumptions. 1. Beyond that several empiric formulas for the refractive index n(l) have been developed.
37]. long wavelengths. At wavelengths longer than 1000 nm, this thick wafer slowly becomes transparent. For discussion of the transmittance, it seems therefore appropriate to study thinner wafers. 24d shows the reﬂectance and transmittance of a layer with only d ¼ 10 mm. The differences compared to the thick layer are obvious. The layer increasingly becomes transparent for wavelengths longer than 600 nm. This also inﬂuences the reﬂectance as now light reﬂected at the rear side of the layer contributes to the reﬂectance, making it higher than for the thick layer.
6. That means the planes of constant phase and the planes of constant amplitude are perpendicular to each other. This kind of waves is called evanescent wave. The attenuation constant c depends upon the angle of incidence a and the refractive indices n1 and n2: c¼ Á1=2 2p À 2 : n sin2 aÀn21 l 2 ð2:55Þ For a ¼ aC, it is c ¼ 0, and for 0 a < aC, it becomes purely imaginary, so that the wave is not attenuated in z-direction but corresponds to a radiating wave, as expected from Snells law. These evanescent waves from total internal reﬂection exhibit a peculiarity with respect to the polarization.
A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten